Reviewed by: the ADCES Professional Practice Committee
Acknowledgements: Carla Cox, PhD, RD, CDE, CPT; Karen M. Bolderman, RD, LDN, CDE; Gary Scheiner, MS, CDE; Claire M. Blum, MS Ed, RN, CDE; Gwen Klinkner, MS, RN, APRN, BC-ADM, CDE; Janet Mertz, MS, RD, LD, CDE. Revisions: January 2018: Diana Isaacs, PharmD, BCPS, BC-ADM, CDE, Diane Battaglia, RN, CDE, Carla Cox, PhD, RD, CDE, CPT. Revisions: March 2021: Carla Cox, PhD, RDN, CDCES, CPT
Pre-pump and on-going self-management education in the use of a pump should include correction of any misconceptions the PWD may have regarding insulin pump therapy. The diabetes care and education specialist must conduct an assessment of the individual’s knowledge of diabetes, knowledge deficits, and preferred learning style to develop an individualized education plan. The individual’s age or education level should not be considered a deciding factor in their ability to utilize pump therapy.
At a minimum, the prospective pump user should have knowledge of the physiology of diabetes and an understanding of the relationship between insulin and food, stress, exercise, and other factors that affect blood glucose. The foundation for advanced self-management
with use of an insulin pump is best served with a thorough knowledge of diabetes management skills, including the ability to troubleshoot and problem-solve, recognize and respond to glucose patterns, and demonstrate appropriate self-care behaviors.9
Pre-pump education varies widely based on the incoming knowledge of the person with diabetes and or caregiver. Some individuals complete two to three 1-hour sessions with a verbal exchange of information. Others need a structured learning environment that is spread over an extended period of time, with practical or written evaluations to gauge their level of comprehension. A group class covering pump education can be a time effective means for provisions of education. Reminder, the educational plan for children should include their parents and caregivers.9,10
1. Bergenstal R, Tamorlane W, Ahmann A et al. Effectiveness of sensor-augmented insulin-pump therapy in type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2010:363:311-320. 2. Bally L, Hood T and Hovorka R. Closed-loop for type 1 diabetes-an introduction and appraisal for the generalist. BMC Medicine. 2-17:15:14. Accessed 8/26/2017/ 3. Heinemann L, Fleming G, Petrie J et al. Insulin Pump Risks and Benefits: A Clinical Appraisal of Pump Safety Standards, Adverse Event Reporting, and Research Needs A Joint Statement of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the American Diabetes Association Diabetes Technology Working Group. Diabetes Care 2015;38:716–722. 4. Grunberger G, Abelseth J, Bailey T, et al. (2014) Consensus Statement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology Insulin Pump Management Task Force. Endocrine Practice: 2014:20(5) 463-489. 5. 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American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for developing a diabetes mellitus comprehensive care plan. Endocr Pract. 2011;17 Suppl 2:1-53. 12. Clayton-Jeter H. Contributing Factors to Insulin Pump Errors in Children, Adolescents and Adults Available: http://www.fda.gov/forhealthprofessionals/articlesofinterest/ucm295562.htm. Accessed February 13, 2014. 13. Aldasouqi S and Reed A. Pitfalls of insulin pump clocks: technical glitches that may potentially affect medical care in patient with diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2014;8(6):1215-1220. 14. Evert AB, Insulin pump therapy troubleshooting for optimal performance. Empower. 2015;7(4):23-24 15. Guilhem I, Leguerrier AM, Lecordier F, et al. Technical risks with subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes Metab. 2006;32(3):279-284. 16. Maahs D, Horton L and Chase H. The use of insulin pumps in youth with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther 2010;12(suppl1):S59-65. 17. Cornish A, Chase HP. Navigating airport security with an insulin pump and/or sensor. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2012;14(11):984-985. 18. American Diabetes Association. Fact Sheet – Air Travel and Diabetes Available: http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/know-your-rights/discrimination/publicaccommodations/air-traveland-diabetes/what-can-i-bring-with-me.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/. Accessed 9/10/2017 19. Diabetes care in the school and day care setting. Diabetes Care. 2014;37 Suppl 1:S91-96. 20. McCrea D. Management of the hospitalized diabetes patient with an insulin pump. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2013;25(1):111-121. 21. Boyle ME, Seifert KM, Beer KA, et al. Guidelines for application of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump) therapy in the perioperative period. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2012;6(1):184- 190. 22. Buchko BL, Artz B, Dayhoff S, et al. Improving care of patients with insulin pumps during hospitalization: translating the evidence. 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Forlenza G, Raghinaru D, Cameron F, et al. Predictive hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia minimization: In-home double-blind randomized controlled evaluation in children and young adolescents. Pediatric Diabetes. 2017;1-9. 28. Breton M, Chernavvsky D, Forlenza G et al. Closed-loop control during intense prolonged outdoor exercise in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the artificial pancreas ski study. Diabetes Care. 2017:40(12):1644-50. 12. 29. Tauschmann M, Thabit H, Bally L, et al. Closed-loop insulin delivery in suboptimally controlled type 1 diabetes: a multicentre 12-week randomised trial. Lancet. 2018:13:92. 30. OpenAPS.Outcomes. Downloaded 3/2/2021. 31. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2021Diabetes Care. 2021;44 Suppl 1:S89 32. Danne T, Nimri R, Battelino R et al. International consensus of use of continuous glucose monitoring. Diabetes Care. 2017:40(12):1631-1640. 33. Chase P and Messner L. Understanding insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitors and the artificial pancreas (3rd ed). 2016. Children’s Diabetes Foundation at Denver, Colorado. 34. Wallia A, Umpierrez G, Rushakoff R et al. Consensus statement on inpatient use of continuous glucose monitoring. J. Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017:11(5);1036-1041. 35. Shapiro A. FDA approval of nonadjunctive use of continuous glucose monitors for insulin dosing: A potential risky decision. JAMA. 2017:318(16);1541-1542. 36. Rinker J, Dickinson J, Litchmanb M et al. Diabetes Educator. 2018:44(3):260-268.
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